Ways Nonviolent Actions Can Prevail (Gene Sharp):

 •Conversion: Gandhians and many religious groups insist that converting the opponent to their point of view--winning their hearts and minds--is the only true victory (Vykom 1924 Brahman temple, untouchables)

•Accommodation:  when the opponent doesn't agree with the resisters, but decides it is too costly to continue the fight.


•Nonviolent coercion. This occurs when the opposition is forced to make concessions against its will because its power base has been dissolved.


Stages of Movement Development
(from George Lakey, Strategy for a Living Revolution)

Stage one: Cultural preparation
•What are your long-range goals?
•What changes do people need in the way they look at themselves?
•What methods of consciousness raising makes sense for the kind of people you want to work with?
All Indians could join the campaign for a free India with simple changes in their lives—boycott foreign clothes, untouchability

Stage Two: Organization Building (Creating Model Alternative Institutions)
•Looking ahead to stage five where strong organization is necessary, can the form withstand growth?
•What is the role of alternative institutions in building the revolutionary movement?
•How can organizational units link? Informal networks? Hierarchical arrangements? Other?
Indian National Congress, suits to hand spun cloth
Waiting 10 years between national civil disobedience campaigns
Stage Three: Confrontation (Propaganda of Deed)
•Who is the "audience," the people who, when watching the drama of confrontation, can be won over to the side of revolution?
What are the tactics, or methods, of confrontation which will communicate the central messages?
•What support do people need to get through this stage successfully, so they will not back down, become intimidated, or get isolated?
•Relationship between violent and nonviolent resistance: India, U.S. civil rights
Inviting government crack downs- Gandhi – salt works
Stage 4: Mass Noncooperation
•Whose cooperation is the system dependent on?
•What noncooperation tactics may be appropriate (strike, boycott, tax refusal, slow-downs, etc.)?
•How can the movement reach out to opponents, and help individuals in the ruling class and bureaucratic command posts cross over to the revolution or at least be supportive in some ways?
John Adams: U.S. noncooperation with Britain in the 1770s
Stage 5: Parallel Institutions
•What are the actual tactics of power transfer?
•What are the international connections in this process?
•How can the empowerment of people continue to be deepened and strengthened after the excitement of getting rid of the old order wears off?

Stages of a Nonviolent Campaign (like Gandhi’s salt march)
•Fact-finding and analysis
•Public Education about the issues
•Developing a personal commitment and resolution to do something
•Negotiating with the opponent
•Direct Action
•Reconciliation with the opponent
–Martin Luther King, Jr., Stride Toward Freedom
Identify an issue that has personal meaning to the people and is also a symbol of broader injustice – British part of Lucknow
Stages in Direct Action
•1. Hold protests which build sympathy and commitment
•2. When protests have strengthened the movement, an ultimatum is given to the opponent
•3. If the opponent doesn’t change substantially, large numbers of people begin to resist, or to withdraw their cooperation
–Dave Delinger, More Power than We Know